Environment


WHAT IS POLLUTION?

Pollution is any contamination of the air, water, or land that results from human activity. Pollution results from inefficiencies in the manufacturing process, both operational practices and improperly designed and utilized equipment. Pollutants are unused raw materials or by-products resulting from the production process. Pollution represents a loss of profits in manufacturing. In simplest terms, all outputs from a manufacturing facility can be put into two classifications:

Often the soil is so contaminated with toxic materials and heavy metals that it may never be used again. The total amount of organic matter discharged in the effluent of industrial plants in Egypt equals 270 tons/day. This amount corresponds to the untreated discharge of sewerage from more than 6 million people. Poor water quality in most of the Nile River leads to large expenditures of capital to treat this water so that it is useful as a supply for drinking water, as well as for industrial, commercial, and agricultural activities.product and waste. Anything that the customer pays for it, it is aproduct; all else that leaves the facility is waste. In an ideal world, manufacturing activities would produce zero waste. In the real world, industry must strive to reduce the waste from manufacturing since this represents an inefficient use of scarce resources, It can be argued that all waste can be indirectly associated with pollution since the management of waste consumes resources that would not otherwise be used, and pollution is often generated in these waste management activities.

WHAT IS PREVENTION?

Prevention is the act of taking advance measures against something possible or probable. Prevention is generally contrasted with control or cure. For instance, vaccines prevent illnesses, while antibiotics control illnesses; similarly design for quality prevents defects, while inspection controls defects; seat belts prevent injury, while casts and crutches help cure injury from car accidents, Generally speaking, the effort, time, and money associated with prevention is less than that of control or cure.This idea is captured in the maxm "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Thus, in many cases it is worthwhile for industry to prevent pollution rather than control it.


THE POLLUTION PREVENTION HIERARCHY

Environmental management encompasses a variety of strategies for dealing with wastes. A hierarchy has been developed to prioritize these strategies. Strategies that reduce or eliminate wastes before they are created are preferable to those that deal with treating or disposing wastes that are already generated. This hierarchy is:

They provide large surface area. Feed water passes through the walls of fibre and passes through the bore.

Brine or the concentrate is rejected through the Brine outlet.


Prevention:

The best waste reduction strategy is one that keeps waste from being formed in the first place. Waste prevention may in some cases require significant changes to process, but it provides the greatest environmental and economic rewards.


Recycling:

If waste generation is unavoidable in a process then strategies that minimize the waste to the greatest extent possible should be pursued such as recycling and waste.

Treatment:

When wastes cannot be prevented or minimized through reuse or recycling, Strategies to reduce their volume or toxicity through treatment can be pursued. While "end-of-pipe strategies can sometimes reduce the amount of waste, they are not as effective as preventing the waste in the first place.


Disposal:

The last strategy to consider is alternative disposal methods. Proper waste disposal is an essential component of an overall environmental management program; however, it is the least effective technique.

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION IN EGYPT

EGYPT suffers from a number of serious environmental problems. The degradation of its air, water, and land results from a burgeoning urban population, heavy dependence on a single body of water (the Nile), and industrial/commercial growth that has occurred without regard to the environment.

The following outlines key environmental problems facing Egypt today:

Water:

Egypt's very limited water resources are becoming increasingly polluted because of the excessive and improper use of the resource. Untreated or poorly treated urban and industrial toxic and hazardous waste pollutes Egypt's surface and groundwater endangering the environment and the health of hundreds of thousands of people. Often the soil is so contaminated with toxic materials and heavy metals that it may never be used again. The total amount of organic matter discharged in the effluent of industrial plants in Egypt equals 270 tons/day. This amount corresponds to the untreated discharge of sewerage from more than 6 million people. Poor water quality in most of the Nile River leads to large expenditures of capital to treat this water so that it is useful as a supply for drinking water, as well as for industrial, commercial, and agricultural activities