Sterilization

Sterilization UV DISINFECTION

Ultraviolet from the sun has been known for its ability to destroy micro-organisms.
Ultraviolet, commonly referred to as UV, is a very efficient form of disinfection.
The UV lamp is similar to a fluorescent lamp in appearance only, its operates using a low pressure mercury vapor to reduce the UV energy necessary to kill micro-organisms that can live in water.
There are five major group of micro-organisms that are destroyed with UV: viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa. When these microbes are exposed to the UV energy their nucleic acid absorbs the energy which scrambles the DNA structure and prohibits reproduction.
Note: UV proper exposure should be 16000 micro-watt seconds per centimeters squared to achieve potable water standard.

HOW DOES UV WORK ?

Ultra Violet energy causes permanent inactivation of micro­organisms by disrupting DNA, so that it is no longer able to maintain metabolism or reproduce itself.
The maximum effectiveness occurs around 240 to 280 nm, depending on the organism.
All bacteria, fungi and viruses, are killed by

UV.UV IN GENERAL:

Ozone

Ozone is a high energy and very unstable molecule composed of three oxygen atoms (O3).
The extra atom of oxygen attempts to recombine any things in its path in order to stabilize.
When it comes in contact with contaminants such as Bacteria, Virus, or Organic Waste Materials Ozone acts as an oxidizer. Ozone is the strongest oxidizer commercially available.


How Ozone is Produce ?

Ozone is produce from lightning bolts during an electric storm. The electric discharge disassociates the oxygen molecule in the air.
The fresh smell that is present after a thunderstorm is a proof that mother nature is purifying the air.
Ultraviolet rays from the sun reacts with oxygen in our atmosphere to form our protective ozone layer.
Aquazone duplicated these process using charged electrodes.
When the air we breath which contains 21% oxygen, is passed thorough the ozonator , the oxygen in air is converted to zone.

How does ozone works ?

Because ozone is a high energy molecule, as soon as it comes in contact with organic matter the third oxygen atom detaches itself and combines with the contaminants in an oxidization reaction.
Ozone is used for air & water purification for the following reasons:
For eliminating all known types of Bacteria & Virus from water and air.

For removing the odour from water and air.
For removing the colour from water.
It improves the taste of the water.
Gives the water a sparkling appearance.
Removes Chlorine odors and its by products from the water.
For increasing the shelf life of the bottled water.
For oxidizing residual organics present in the water.
For reducing TOC from the water.
For reducing COD & BOD from the water.


Chlorine

Chlorine is widely used by municipal water systems to disinfect water from bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms that cause diseases. In fact, All the municipal water systems in EGYPT use chlorine.


What is Chlorine?

Clorine is one of the chemical elements, noted for its great power as an oxidizing agent. When dispersed in air, it was a terrible war gas.
When dissolved in water, "free chlorine" attacks everything it touches, creating chemical by-products with every reaction. Free chlorine is also produced by adding common laundry bleach to water.
Some of the by-products still retain a little oxidizing power, and these are called "combined chlorine".
One of them, called monochloramine, is often used by waterworks as a long-term stabilizer against bacterial growth in the mains, after primary disinfection has been completed inside the treatment plant.
It takes longer to kill bacteria and viruses than to react with individual molecules, so disinfection cannot be considered complete until all of the combined chlorine has been oxidized, leaving "Free Available Chlorine" (FAC).
In this Issues of Water Quality, we will be discussing only free available chlorine.

Effects of Chlorine
Despite its usefulness in disinfecting drinking water, there are problems associated with chlorine. Chlorine use can cause aesthetic water quality problems like a "swimming pool" taste and odor. Far more alarming are some studies that link chlorine by-products with bladder, colon and rectal cancer. One study shows that people who drink chlorinated water run a 21 percent greater risk of bladder cancer and a 38 percent greater risk of rectal cancer than people who drink water with little or no chlorine. One by-product is trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs are formed when chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in water, like decayed leaves. THMs (like chloroform) have been linked to a higher rate of cancer and have been classified as probable or possible human carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Research also indicates that many other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are also often present in water that has been treated with chlorine.

Reducing Chlorine in Your Water
While there is no way to prevent the addition of chlorine in your municipal water supply, there is a way to remove or reduce chlorine and chlorine by-products from your water before you drink or cook with it. This can be done simply and cost effectively with a point-of-use (POU) water filtration system certified by NSF international for the reduction of chlorine, THMs and VOCs.